What is linux ?

 What Is Linux ? Components of Linux? All Things about Linux.

From smartphones to cars, supercomputers and home appliances, from home desktops to enterprise servers, Linux operating systems are everywhere.

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Linux has been around since the late 1990s and has since grown to a user-base that spans the globe. Linux is really everywhere: it's in your phones, your thermostats, your cars, refrigerators, Roku devices, and TVs. In addition to being the platform of choice for running desktop, server and embedded systems around the world, Linux is one of the most reliable, secure and worry-free operating systems out there. Like Windows, iOS and Mac OS, Linux is an operating system. In fact it is the most popular operating system software that manages all the hardware resources associated with your desktop or laptop. To put it simply, the operating system manages the communication between your software and your hardware. Without the operating system (OS), the software will not function.


What is Linux?


Linux is an operating system. Operating system is a type of computer control program that controls all the activities of the computer, ie, Linux is a software like other operating systems like MS Dos, P. C. Dos, and Win-95 / 98 operating system. Linux is a multi-operating system designed for use on the Intel 80386 personal computer. 


The development of Linux began in the 1960s. In 1968, researchers from the AT & T Bell Laboratory jointly created an operating system called MULTICS (Multiplexed Information Computer System), followed by the development of UNIX in 1969. Linux was developed from UNIX itself. Linux was developed by Torvald. This version 0.11 was released in the year 1991. Linux's Graphical interface is based on the X window system. Linux is one of the popular versions of the UNIX operating system. It is an open source software because its source code is freely available. It is free to use. Linux was designed with UNIX compatibility in mind. Its functionality list is very similar to UNIX.


What is the difference between Unix and Linux?


You may have heard of Unix, an operating system developed in the 1970s at Bell Labs by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. Unix and Linux are similar in many ways, and in fact, Linux was originally designed to be similar to Unix. Both have similar devices for interfacing with the system, programming tools, filesystem layout, and other major components. However, Unix is ​​not independent. Over the years, many different operating systems have been created that attempt to be "Unix-like" or "Unix-compatible", but Linux has been the most successful, surpassing its predecessors in popularity.


Components of Linux System:


Linux operating system mainly consists of three components -

Kernel - The kernel is the main part of Linux. It is responsible for all the major activities of this operating system. It consists of various modules and interacts directly with the underlying hardware. The kernel provides the necessary abstraction to hide the low level hardware details in the system or application program.

System Libraries - System libraries are special functions or programs of Linux, using which application programs or system utilities access the kernel's features. These libraries implement most of the functionality of the operating system and do not require access to the kernel module's code.

System Utility - System utility programs are responsible for performing specific level of tasks.


Features of Linux 


1. Linux is portable


Linux written in C programming language, which is not related to any type of computer hardware, it is capable of running on any type of computer like PCAT, MACINTOS.


2. Linux is a multi user and multitasking OS


The multi-user facilities given in Linux are more powerful than other operating systems, in Linux also, like other operating systems, many user accounts can be maintained, but at the same time many users can login and do their work. You can choose your different desk top. And can be freely given its own separate directory password, that is, no user can make any changes in any other user's directory.


3. Network information service


A network format structure is created to use many different types of computers by connecting them together. Which is called networking. Linux is specially developed to work in networking. Through Linux, we can share the password and divide the files into groups and use them on the network.


4. Multitasking


In Linux, a program is divided into small tasks. Multitasking is the ability of an operating system to perform multiple tasks simultaneously.


5. Virtual Memory


If we edit any big program or application. So we need some physical memory which is stored in the hard disk and can be used when required.


6. Linux is network friendly


Linux is network friendly operating system, the use of Linux is increasing day by day, even it is becoming necessary to update various application software such as antivirus etc. through internet from time to time, this means It has become necessary for every computer user to be connected to the Internet gradually, so it is natural that after the popularity and development of the Internet, all the operating systems are equipped with powerful tools related to the Internet. Today the compatibility of any network has become an important test to test it, since the development of Linux was done by many programmers together through the Internet, so the Internet has been given more priority, especially in this Linux operating system itself is a strong Internet. The service provider has the ability to work as well as it can work as a client or server on any operating system.


7. Linux is open


Linux distribution with its source code also available which we can change as per our requirement. In this sense, Linux is an open system.


8. Multiprogramming


Linux is a multiprogramming system, which means that multiple applications can run at the same time.


9. Hierarchical File System


Linux provides a standard file structure in which system files / user files are organized.


10. Shell


Linux provides a special inter printer program that can be used to execute commands of the operating system. It can be used to program a variety of operations, call applications.


11. Security


Linux provides user protection such as password protection / controlled access to specific files / encryption of data.



The Linux operating system consists of several different parts:


The bootloader - the software that manages your computer's boot process. For most users, it will simply be a splash screen that pops up and eventually goes to boot into the operating system.


Kernel - It manages the CPU, memory and peripheral devices. Kernel is the lowest level of the OS.


Daemons - These are background services (printing, sound, scheduling, etc.) that are started either during boot or after logging in to the desktop.


Graphical Server - This is the system that displays graphics on your monitor. It is commonly referred to as X Server or just X.


Desktop Environment - This is the part that users actually interact with. There are several desktop environments to choose from (GNOME, Cinnamon, Mate, Pantheon, Enlightenment, KDE, Xfce, etc.). Each desktop environment includes built-in applications (such as file managers, configuration tools, web browsers, and games).



What is a “Linux distribution ?


"There are many different versions of Linux for any type of user. From new users to hard-core users, you'll find a "flavor" of Linux to match your needs. These versions are called distributions. or, for short, "distros"). Almost every distribution of Linux can be downloaded for free, burned to a disc (or USB thumb drive), and installed.


Popular Linux distributions include: 


• LINUX MINT MANJARO

• DEBIAN 

• UBUNTU 

• ANTERGOS 

• SOLUS 

• FEDORA 

• ELEMENTARY OS 

• OPENSUSE 


Each distribution has a different look on the desktop. Some opt for very modern user interfaces (such as GNOME and Elementary OS's Pantheon) , while others use a more traditional desktop environment (such as using KDE ).


Architecture of Linux


The architecture of Linux system includes the following layers - 


Hardware Layer - Hardware consists of all peripheral devices (RAM / HDD / CPU etc.).


Kernel - It is the main component of the operating system, interacts directly with the hardware, providing lower level services to the upper layer components.


Shell - An interface to the kernel, hiding the complexity of the kernel's functions from users. The shell takes commands from the user and executes the functions of the kernel.


Utilities - Utilities are programs that provide the user with most of the functionality of an operating system. User 1 Applications Vi Shell Kernel Hardware a.out date








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