What is Mobile IP? How does this work ?

 What is Mobile IP? How does this work ?

Mobile IP is a communication protocol created by the Internet Protocol, an extension of IP. The full name of Mobile IP is Mobile Internet Protocol. It is also called MIP. It is a standard communication protocol by which mobile users can move from one network to another through a permanent IP address, that is, the IP address of the users does not change when they move to another network. It is defined in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 2002.

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Mobile IP is based on the Internet protocol, so it is scalable to the Internet. Any media that supports IP can also support mobile IP. 

Components of Mobile IP

1. Mobile Node ( MN )

2. Home Agent ( HA )

3. Foreign Agent ( FA )

4. Home Network ( HN )

5. Foreign Network ( FN )

6. Corresponding Node ( CN )

7. Care of Address ( COA )

Mobile Node

A mobile node is a device or a user or a router that can often change the state of its network without changing its original IP address. Examples of mobile node are cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), laptop etc. Mobile node has roaming facilities.

Home Agent

A home agent is a router in a home network. It acts as an anchor point for communication with the mobile node. Which helps to communicate with the mobile node. It stores the complete information of mobile nodes and it sends data from correspondent node to roaming mobile node through tunnel.

Foreign Agent

A foreign agent is a router that provides several services such as tunneling a data node whenever a mobile node moves across a foreign network. Then the home agent sends the IP address to the care of address, after that the care-of-address sends it to the foreign agent and finally the foreign agent sends this IP address to the mobile device.

Home Network

Home network is a base station network, this network does not require any mobile IP support.

Foreign Network

All networks except the home network on which the mobile node has a registered IP are called foreign networks.

Corresponding Node

The partner nodes which are used for communication with mobile nodes are called corresponding nodes.

Care of address

This is a temporary address that is used by the mobile node when it goes out of its home network.

Working of Mobile IP :

The working of Mobile IP can be described in 3 steps:

1. Agent Discovery 

In this, mobile nodes discover their foreign and home agents. Home agents and foreign agents advertise their services over the network using the ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP).

2. Registration

The main purpose of registration is to inform the home agent of the current location to forward the packet correctly. In this mobile node registers its current location with foreign agent and home agent.

3. Tunneling

It is used to establish a virtual connection in the form of a pipe to transfer data packets between the tunnel entry and the tunnel endpoint. Tunneling is also known as "port forwarding".

Applications of Mobile IP 

Mobile IP technology is used in many applications where network connectivity and sudden changes in IP address can cause problems. It was designed to have simple and continuous internet connectivity.

It is used in many wired and wireless devices where users have to move their mobile device over multiple LAN subnets.

Although mobile IP is not required in cellular systems such as 3G, it is often used for various packet data serving node (PDSN) domains in 3G systems.

Advantages of Mobile IP

1. Through this we can use the internet without any problem.

2. Through this we can also use our mobile in roaming.

Disadvantage of Mobile IP

One of its problems is that sometimes the signal in the mobile device becomes weak and the internet does not work even though there is a signal.


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